Chad


FGM PREVALENCE: 38.4%

Key Findings


The prevalence of FGM in women aged 15-49 is 38.4%.

45.1% of women aged 15-49 believe that FGM should not continue.

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Geography

The regions with the highest prevalence are in the south-east; the regions with the lowest in the north-west

Age

46.7% of women aged 15-49 who have undergone FGM were cut between the ages of 5 and 9

Type

The types of FGM ‘cut, no flesh removed’ and ‘cut, flesh removed’ are practised in almost equal measures

Agent

Almost all FGM is carried out by traditional cutters

Development Indicators


Population

4,938,838 (as at 9 June 2017), with a 1.88% growth rate (2016 est.)

Infant Mortality Rate

85 deaths per 1,000 live births (2015)

Maternal Mortality Rate

858 deaths per 100,000 live births (2015)

Literacy

40.2% of the total population aged 15 and over can read/write French or Arabic

Prevalence of FGM


Prevalence of FGM

FGM prevalence varies widely across Chad.  The regions with the highest prevalence are in the south-east:  Salamat (96.1% of women aged 15-49), Sila (93.2%) and Guéra (90%).  The regions with the lowest prevalence are in the north-west:  Lac (0.7%), Kanem (0.7%) and Bourkou/Tibesti (1.8%).  Unusually, women aged 15-49 who live in urban areas are more likely to undergo FGM (40.1%) than those who live in rural areas (37.9%).  Prevalence in the capital city of N’Djaména is 37.6% of women aged 15-49.

The prevalence of FGM among Muslim women aged 15-49 is 50.4%, compared to 40.1% for Catholics and 14.9% for Protestants.

The ethnic group with the highest prevalence among women aged 15-49 is the Dadajo/Kibet/Mouro, at 92.4%, followed by the Arabe (85.4%) and the Bidio/Migami/Kenga/Dangléat (83%).  The ethnic group with the lowest prevalence is the Marba/Lélé/Mesmé, at 0.4%, followed by the Massa/Mousseye/Mousgoume (2.1%) and the Moundang and Karo/Zimé/Pévé (both 2.4%), although the extremely low sample size for all four of these ethnic groups makes these figures unreliable.

Between 2004 and 2014-15, the overall prevalence for women aged 15-49 fell from 44.9% to 38.4%.  In 2004 it was reported that 34% of women who know about FGM believe it is required by their religion; by 2014-15, that figure was 30%.  In 2004, 49.4% of women who know about FGM stated that it should continue; by 2014-15, that figure had fallen to 29.1%.

FGM Legislation in Chad


The Government of Chad passed legislation in 2002 that prohibits FGM (Law No. 006/PR/2002 of 15 April 2002, on the promotion of reproductive health).  Text of a further law prohibiting FGM was passed in 2012, but the required Implementation Decree has not been approved yet, as there is considerable resistance to the proposed law and the government has instead emphasised the need to raise public awareness against the practice.

RESEARCH & RESOURCES


Research and resources for Chad