Women aged 15–49 who live in rural areas are slightly more likely to undergo FGM than women in urban areas
Most girls are cut between the ages of 10 and 14
84.9% of women aged 15–49 have undergone Type III FGM (infibulation/'sewn closed'), which is also known as Pharaonic FGM
Predominantly traditional practitioners, but medicalised FGM is on the rise
4–5 million (2019), with a 2.08% growth rate (2018 est.)
85 deaths per 1,000 live births (2015)
732 deaths per 100,000 live births (2015)
45.3%; literacy among women is less common, at 40.5%, than among men, at 50.2%
In 2011, prevalence in Somaliland was 99.1% (women aged 15–49). 2006 and 2011 figures indicate that the prevalence of FGM has increased from 94.4% to 99.1%; however, due to various challenges related to data collection, further data would be required to confirm that there has been a genuine upward trend in cutting.
Women who live in rural areas are only slightly more likely (99.6%) to undergo FGM than those who live in urban areas (98.7%).
Across the entire region of Somalia and Somaliland, 64.5% of women believe that FGM should continue and 32.8% believe that it should not (2006).
While support for Type III (Pharaonic) FGM has declined in recent years, other types of FGM referred to as 'sunna' remain popular.
FGM Legislation in Somaliland
See Somaliland: The Law and FGM for more detail.